서울의대 / 노성은, 전용성*
Background: Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling is activated by various hormones and neurotransmitters and regulates numerous physiological phenomena, including energy metabolism, gene expression, and proliferation. cAMP signaling plays a role in the repair of DNA damage, but its specific function is inconsistent in the literature. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the different roles of cAMP signaling in DNA repair by analyzing the cell-type differences in the modulation of DNA repair by cAMP signaling following γ-ray irradiation.
Methods: cAMP signaling was activated in human malignant melanoma cells (SK-MEL-2 and SK-MEL-28), human uterine cervical cancer cells (HeLa and SiHa) and human non-small cell lung cancer cells (H1299 and A549) by expressing a constitutively active mutant of the long-form stimulatory α subunit of GTP-binding protein or by treating with isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2 before γ-ray irradiation. DNA damage was quantitated by western blot analysis of γ-H2AX, and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was assessed by fluorescent reporter plasmid repair assay and immunofluorescence of microscopic foci of XRCC4 and DNA-ligase IV.
Results: cAMP signaling modulated DNA damage, apoptosis and the NHEJ repair following γ-ray irradiation differently depending upon the cell type. cAMP signaling regulated the phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) at Ser2056 and Thr2609 in cell-type-specific manners following γ-ray irradiation, an activity that was mediated by protein kinase A.
Conclusion: cAMP signaling modulates the NHEJ repair of γ-ray-induced DNA damage in melanoma cells, uterine cervical cancer cells and lung cancer cells in a cell-type-specific manner, and the modulation is likely mediated by protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs. This study suggests that cell- and tissue-specific modulation of DNA damage repair by cAMP signaling may contribute to improve the therapeutic efficiency of radiation therapy.
Sung Eun Noh 1 , Yong Sung Juhnn 2
1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, and Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, and Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. email@example.com.